AUDIO from the 2016 Keach Conf. “Of Effectual Calling” now online feat. Clevenger, McKinnon, Riddle, & Rice

2016 Keach speakers and worship leaders (left to right): Andy Rice, Bret Vincent, Steve Clevenger, Jeff Riddle, Lee McKinnon
2016 Keach speakers and worship leaders (left to right): Andy Rice, Bret Vincent, Steve Clevenger, Jeff Riddle, Lee McKinnon

Jeff Riddle:

The 2016 Keach Conference, sponsored by the Reformed Baptist Fellowship of Virginia, was held on Saturday, October 1, 2016 at the Providence Baptist Church in Harrisonburg, Virginia.  The theme was “Of Effectual Calling,” with four messages drawn from chapter ten of the Second London Baptist Confession (1689).


Message One: Steve Clevenger, Covenant Reformed Baptist Church, Warrenton, Virginia: Effectual Calling and Regeneration. [mp3]:

Message Two: Lee McKinnon, Covenant Reformed Baptist Church, Bluefield, West Virginia: Effectual Calling and Spiritual Ability. [mp3]:

Message Three: Jeff Riddle, Christ Reformed Baptist Church, Louisa, Virginia: Effectual Calling and Elect Infants. [mp3]:

Message Four: Andy Rice, Providence Baptist Church, Harrisonburg, Virginia: Effectual Calling and the Reprobate. [mp3]:

New Book: “A Noble Company, Vol. 7: Biographical Essays of Notable Particular-Regular Baptists in America” [Particular Baptist Press]

$34 – A Noble Company

Biographical Essays on Notable
Particular-Regular Baptists in America
Volume 7

Edited by Terry Wolever


This volume contains essays on twenty-four men and women, all of whom did their work for the Lord during the latter half of the eighteenth century and the mid-nineteenth century. These include such major figures in American Baptist history as Jesse Mercer, Andrew Broaddus, William Staughton, and William Parkinson.

Subjects in this volume are [link give short description]:

1. Jesse Mercer (1769-1841) by Anthony L. Chute

2. Marmaduke Earle (1769-1856) by Terry Wolever

3. Andrew Broaddus (1770-1848) by Peter Beck

4. William Staughton (1770-1829) by Thomas J. Nettles

5. Asahel Morse (1771-1838) by Gerald L. Priest

6. William Collier (1771-1843) by G. Truett Rogers

7. James Whitsitt (1771-1849) by Albert W. Wardin, Jr.

8. [The American Revolution and] Stephen Smith Nelson (1772-1853) by Jeffrey P. Staub

9. Joshua Bradley (1773-1855) by Terry Wolever

10. William Parkinson (1774-1848) by André A. Gazal

11. Clark Kendrick (1775-1824) by William H. Brackney

12. Daniel Dodge (1775-1851) by Jeffrey A. Waldrop

13. Jeremiah Chaplin (1776-1841) by Nathan V. Lentfer

14. Archibald Maclay (1776-1860) by Ian Hugh Clary

15. Nathaniel Kendrick (1777-1848) by Benjamin C. Leslie

16. Daniel Davis Lewis (1777-1849) by Larry R. Oats

17. Horatio Gates Jones, Sr. (1777-1853) by G. Truett Rogers

18. Stephen Chapin (1778-1845) by Christopher C. Moore

19. Joseph Mathias (1778-1851) by Johnny Truelove

20. Thomas Brown (1779-1831) by Jonny White

21 & 22. Ensign Lincoln (1779-1832) and Thomas Edmands (1780-1850) by Terry Wolever

23. Obadiah B. Brown (1779-1852) by Don Moffitt

24. Mary Webb (1779-1861) by Rosalie Beck

There are three appendixes [and indexes]. They are:

A. Letter from William Staughton to the parents of Stephen Dutilh (1800)

B. Church Covenant and Resolutions of the Baptist Church at Burlington, New Jersey, 1801. William Staughton, Pastor.

C. Letter from Clark Kendrick to Mrs. Tabitha Morgan (1820)

Hardcover. Bound in Navy cloth vellum with gold stamping. 649 pages. Illustrated with some additional rare portraits and other pictures. Three extensive indexes – Persons, Subjects and Churches.

Learn more about Particular Baptist Press in our interview with them.

New Book: “Eight Women of Faith” by Michael Haykin + Radio Interview [Pilgrim Radio Network]


Eight Women of Faith

by Michael A. G. Haykin

Paperback: $8.87 | Kindle: $8.43/£11.78


Dr. Michael A.G. Haykin
Dr. Michael A.G. Haykin

Read the Stories of Eight Remarkable Women and Their Vital Contributions to Church History

Throughout history, women have been crucial to the growth and flourishing of the church. Historian Michael A. G. Haykin highlights the lives of eight of these women who changed the course of history, showing how they lived out their unique callings despite challenges and opposition—inspiring modern men and women to imitate their godly examples today.




  • Paperback: 160 pages
  • Publisher: Crossway (July 31, 2016)
  • Excerpt: 37 page PDF

Audio Interview: [mp3]

Radio interview w/ Michael Haykin on “The Baptist Story: From English Sect to Global Movement” [Iron Sharpens Iron]


From a recently posted Iron Sharpens Iron Radio from July 5, 2016 with Chris Arnzen:

michael haykinDR. MICHAEL HAYKIN,
Professor of Church History & Biblical Spirituality (2008),
Director of the Andrew Fuller Center for Baptist Studies at
The Southern Baptist Theological Seminary, Louisville, KY
& author of
Baptist Story BookTHE BAPTIST STORY: From English Sect to Global Movement

2 hour audio [mp3]:

17 Free VIDEOS of Sam Waldron’s Eschatology (Last Things) Course: A Comprehensive Historical & Theological Overview [CBTS]


Dr. Sam Waldron
Dr. Sam Waldron

As an amazing gift to the wider Body of Christ, Covenant Baptist Theological Seminary are very kindly and generously making their entire 17 course lectures on eschatology available free of charge online. This course, taught by Dr. Sam Waldron, is outstanding, giving a comprehensive overview of the subject from both an historical and theological perspective. I recommend the series wholeheartedly and pray that God will use it to further the cause of His truth in the midst of much deception in our own day. – Pastor John Samson, King’s Church, Peoria, AZ

The first three lectures cover something of an historical overview of the Church concerning eschatology. This is a very helpful foundation for our understanding. To know that we are engaging in a conversation that has been going on for centuries, gives us a knowledge of the structure of the debate, setting the boundaries for what is and what is not to be regarded as ‘heresy’, as well as a right and appropriate sense of humility as we approach the Scriptures ourselves.


Lecture 1: Eschatology in the Early and Medieval Church | ST27 01

Lecture 2: Eschatology in the Early and Medieval Church (Continued)| ST27 02

Lecture 3: Eschatology in the Reformation and Modern Church (continued)  | ST27 03


Lecture 4: The Two Ages | ST27 04

Lecture 5: The Two Ages (Continued)  | ST27 05

Lecture 6: The General Judgment | ST27 06

Lecture 7: The Eschatological Kingdom | ST27 07

Lecture 8: The Eschatological Kingdom (Continued) | ST27 08

Lecture 9: The Eschatological Kingdom (Continued) | ST27 09

Lecture 10: The Eschatological Kingdom (Continued) | ST27 10


Lecture 11: The Intermediate State | ST27 11

Lecture 12: Sheol, Hades, and Hell | ST27 12

Lecture 13: The Earthly Prospects & Church/Israel Distinction | ST27 13

Lecture 14: The Imminent Return / Pre-Tribulationism | ST27 14

Lecture 15: Hyper-Preterism | ST27 15

Lecture 16: The Final Change & The Eternal State—The Doctrine of Eternal Punishment | ST27 16

Lecture 17: The Doctrine of the Redeemed Earth | ST27 17

New Book: “John Bunyan & the Grace of Fearing God” by Paul M. Smalley & Joel R. Beeke


John Bunyan and the Grace of Fearing God
by Paul M. Smalley & Joel R. Beeke

AMZ: $14.99/£11.41 | RHB: $8



He was the author of the best-selling Christian book of all time. His Bible-saturated works have inspired generations of believers all over the world. And yet, as influential as it is, John Bunyan’s theology contains a unifying thread that is sorely neglected in the modern church: the vital importance of the fear of God.

Fearing God is seen by many as psychologically harmful—at odds with belief in a God of love. But Bunyan knew personally that the only freedom from a guilty fear of God’s wrath is a joyful, childlike fear of his holiness. Joel Beeke and Paul Smalley guide us through Bunyan’s life before exploring his writings to illuminate the true grace of fearing God.


“Wisdom requires it, Jesus emphasized it, the apostles encouraged it—and yet few things are more feared in contemporary Christianity than . . . the fear of God. This timely book . . . shows how the fear of God was, in contrast, the heartbeat of one of the most loved and admired of all Christians.”

Sinclair B. Ferguson, Dean of the Doctor of Ministry program, Ligonier Academy of Biblical and Theological Studies

“We today need to read and treasure Bunyan. . . . Beeke and Smalley take the reader through the core of Bunyan’s corpus and whet the reader’s appetite to plunge afresh into Bunyan’s works.”

Michael A. G. Haykin, Professor of Church History and Biblical Spirituality, The Southern Baptist Theological Seminary

The Authors:

Paul M. Smalley is a teaching assistant to Dr. Beeke at Puritan Reformed Theological Seminary and a bivocational pastor at Grace Immanuel Reformed Baptist Church in Grand Rapids, Michigan.

Joel R. Beeke (PhD, Westminster Theological Seminary) is president of Puritan Reformed Theological Seminary, where he also serves as professor of systematic theology and homiletics. He is a pastor of the Heritage Netherlands Reformed Congregations in Grand Rapids, Michigan, and the author of several books, including Truth That Frees, The Quest for Full Assurance, and A Reader’s Guide to Reformed Literature.


Format: Paperback
Pages: 160
Publisher: P&R Publishing

Radio interview w/ Sam Waldron on “The Regulative Principle & Max Doner on “School Shootings: A Christian Response” [Iron Sharpens Iron]

From a recently posted Iron Sharpens Iron Radio from Oct. 5, 2015 with Chris Arnzen:

iron sharpens iron radio header2

Guest #1:
Dr. Sam WaldronSAM WALDRON
Dean of Covenant Baptist Theological Seminary on:

Guest #2:
maxdonerMAX DONER
pastor of Sovereign Grace Bible Church of Lebanon, OR on:

2 hour audio:


Report of the 1st Module of the Confessional Baptist Seminary of Ecuador & upcoming 2nd class starts Nov. 21, 2016 [CBTS]

Covenant Baptist Theological Seminary:

Pastor Francisco Orozco

July 25-29 we had the first class of the Confessional Baptist Seminary of Ecuador (SBCE), with the backing of Covenant Baptist Theological Seminary. The first module was on “The Doctrine of the Word of God,” and was taught by Pastor Francisco Orozco from Chihuahua, Mexico .

The class took place in a camp owned by the Southern Baptist Convention, which is located in the Ecuadorian coast in a small city named Manglaralto. We had 56 students in attendance, the majority of them were pastors of churches and men involved in the ministry of the Word, but from different denominational contexts.

The class had a great impact due to the great truths of the Word of God that were expounded by Pastor Orozco, many of these truths had never been thoroughly studied by some of these pastors before. Among many questions and “battles of the heart” we were able to perceive the great disposition of the heart of these pastors, including some with many years of pastoral experience, who were taught that the Word of God should be their guide in the work of the ministry, and they came to desire that this would be a reality in their ministries.

The week ended full of joy and gratitude to the Lord. Each student returned to his home desiring to put into practice what he had learned, but also with the commitment to set aside time to attend the second class, which will be held November 21-25, and will be taught by Pastor Guillermo Gomez from Bogota, Colombia.

We ask you to pray for our students, the professors, and the whole organization of the Confessional Baptist Seminary of Ecuador, that God would be glorified in everything we do.

Soli Deo Gloria,
Pastor Jorge A. Rodriguez V.
Director SBCE


Al Martin’s 105 Lectures in Pastoral Theology [AUDIO | 8 semesters of material from Trinity Ministerial Academy]

Dr. Albert N. Martin
Dr. Albert N. Martin

Chapel Library:

Pastor Albert N. Martin [pastor of Trinity Baptist Church in Montville, New Jersey for 46 years] regularly taught Pastoral Theology at the Trinity Ministerial Academy in Montville, New Jersey. His lectures, spanning eight semesters of material, have assisted many pastors unable to obtain this type of training through other avenues.

You can find all these lectures in MP3 format below or at this alternative link.

Unit 1: Essential Elements of a Biblical Call

Unit 2: Essential Elements of Effective Pastoral Ministry:In the Man

Unit 3: Essential Elements of Effective Pastoral Ministry:In the Message (Part 1)

Unit 4: Essential Elements of Effective Pastoral Ministry:In the Message (Part 2)

Unit 5: Essential Elements of Effective Pastoral Ministry:In the Act of Preaching

Unit 6: Essential Elements of Effective Pastoral Oversight

Unit 7: Essential Elements of Effective Pastoral Oversight

Unit 8: Essential Elements of Effective Pastoral Oversight

[HT: Scott Brown]

Nov. 4-5, 2016 “Ecclesiology & Mission” Acts 29 Conf. feat. J. Renihan, J. White, J. Thorn in Wellington, New Zealand


We cannot take mission seriously unless we take ecclesiology seriously. The two are inseperable. Because God’s strategy for the Great Commission is the Church, having a robust understanding of the doctrine of the Church is vital for faithfulness in mission. This year’s National New Zealand Acts 29 conference seeks to cultivate exactly that – a biblically faithful, historically informed and contextually sensitive understanding of ecclesiology. Join us as James White, Joe Thorn and Jim Renihan consider doctrine, history, apologetics and mission under the rubric of ecclesiology.

For more info check out the website.


Radio interview w/ Mike Gaydosh on new/revived books [SGCB] & Geoff Thomas on Rom. 8:28 [Iron Sharpens Iron]

From a recently posted Iron Sharpens Iron Radio from June 22, 2016 with Chris Arnzen:

Mike Gaydosh of Solid Ground Christian Books
Mike Gaydosh

“MORE of the BEST of CHRISTIAN BOOKS in Print…OR BACK in Print”
with guest
Founder of


Pastor Geoffrey Thomas
Pastor Geoffrey Thomas

with guest
Author, Conference Speaker, & Pastor Emeritus of

2 hour audio:


Interview with Michael Haykin, co-author with Robert Smart & Ian Clary of “Pentecostal Outpourings: Revival & the Reformed Tradition”

Books at a Glance:

Paperback $20.00 / £15.44 | Kindle: $9.99 / £6.95

It’s not that we’re unappreciative of the “ordinary” workings of God among his people – we are! But those periods of extraordinary movings of God are exciting and a fascinating area of study that always leaves us marveling at the power of the grace of God at work in the human soul. “Revivals” we call them, or “Pentecostal outpourings.”

That’s the title of a new book edited by Michael Haykin along with Robert Davis Smart and Ian Hugh Clary – Pentecostal Outpourings: Revival and the Reformed Tradition. I’m Fred Zaspel, editor here at Books At a Glance, and today our friend Michael Haykin is here to talk with us about their new book.

Greetings, Michael – congratulations on your new book and thanks for talking to us today about it…

Read the entire interview.

New site up for Reformed Baptist Network Constituting Conf., Nov. 15-17, 2016 in Taylors, SC

Reformed Baptist Network:

We are pleased to announce that the new Conference Website is now live. You can now register online for our Founding Conference in November, download a conference brochure and more.

Visit the new site @


Conference brochure [PDF]:

Download (PDF, 275KB)

What is the Reformed Baptist Network?

reformed-baptist-networkThe Reformed Baptist Network is a new effort among Reformed Baptists seeking to organize together for the cause of Christ, church planting and missions.  The Network is being formed from a number of long-standing 1689 Confessional churches, but seeking an association with a fresh vision and focus, desiring to express a broad Reformed and Gospel-centered communion.  RBNet wants to affirm fellowship and relationship with other associations and fellowships, and pursue fraternal connections as much as possible.  Yet RBNetwork also has a distinct missionary vision,organizational structure, and Confessional commitment.

5th edition of “A Modern Exposition of the 1689 Baptist Confession of Faith” Coming Soon [Sam Waldron]

Sam Waldron:

Sam Waldron 1689 commentaryThe Manuscript for the 5th edition of A Modern Exposition of the 1689 Baptist Confession of Faith has been sent to the publisher!  Over the next few weeks we plan to share some insights, additions and improvements that you can expect to see in the new edition.

I want to enlarge on the improvements in the 5th edition of A Modern Exposition.

One of the major improvements, I hope, is in the expanded appendices at the end of the exposition.

Dr. Sam Waldron
Dr. Sam Waldron

Appendix A: The Historical Origin of the 1689 … corrects some historical inaccuracies owing to the primitive state of the sources I used to construct it in the original version of the Exposition.

Appendix B: The Analytical Outline of the 1689 … is a development of an outline I originally borrowed from Greg Nichols. It is now refined by the insights I have gleaned from Jim Renihan’s teaching on the structure of the Confession.

Appendix C: The Doctrinal Overview of the 1689 Baptist Confession is entirely new. It provides an argument that the Confession embodies a tradition which combines historic (catholic) orthodoxy with Reformed theology and Baptist principles.

Appendix D: The Proper Holding of the 1689 Baptist Confession is my response to the notion that the membership in a confessional church requires full subscription and that, therefore, the 1689 is too detailed to be a good, local church confession. I argue that elders must teach the Confession and thus fully subscribe, but members need only sweetly submit to the Confession and need not fully subscribe. This article has been posted on  for some years now. How (and Why) Your Church Should Hold to the 1689 Confession

[See also this new preface snippet and the clearer acknowledgement for Dr. Robert Paul Martin’s defense of the importance of creeds and confessions.]

[Upcoming book snippet] On the remaining sabbatismos for the people of God (Heb. 4:9) [Richard Barcellos]

Richard Barcellos:

taken from my forthcoming book by Founders Press, Getting the Garden Wrong: A Critique of New Covenant Theology on the Covenant of Works and the Sabbath

Copyright © 2016 Richard C. Barcellos. All rights reserved.

That which “remains” is “a Sabbath rest.” The noun “a Sabbath rest” (σαββατισμὸς [sabbatismos]) is used only here in the Bible. Various cognate forms of it are used in the Septuagint (LXX) in at least four places (Exod. 16:30; Lev. 23:32; 26:34; 2 Chron. 36:21). Each use in the LXX, when referring to men, refers to Sabbath-keeping in terms of an activity in the (then) here and now. Lincoln admits this, when he says, “In each of these places the term denotes the observance or celebration of the Sabbath.”[1] This can be seen especially in Exodus 16:30, Leviticus 23:32, and 26:35.


So the people rested (LXX: ἐσαββάτισεν [esabbatisen]; a verb) on the seventh day. (Exod. 16:30)

It is to be a sabbath (LXX: σάββατα [sabbata]; a noun) of complete rest (LXX: σαββάτων [sabbatōn]; a noun) to you, and you shall humble your souls; on the ninth of the month at evening, from evening until evening you shall keep (LXX: σαββατιεῖτε [sabbatieite]; a verb) your sabbath (LXX: τὰ σάββατα ὑμῶν [ta sabbata hymōn]; a noun). (Lev. 23:32)

All the days of its [i.e., the land’s] desolation it will observe the rest (LXX: σαββατιεῖ [sabbatiei]; a verb) which it did not observe (LXX: ἐσαββάτισεν [esabbatisen]; a verb) on your sabbaths (LXX: τοῖς σαββάτοις ὑμῶν [tois sabbatois hymōn]; a noun), while you were living on it. (Lev. 26:34-35)

Dr. Richard Barcellos
Dr. Richard Barcellos

Something interesting occurs in the LXX version of Leviticus 23:32a. The LXX text reads as follows: σάββατα σαββάτων ἔσται ὑμῖν (sabbata sabbatōn estai hymin). The NASB translates this verse: “It is to be a sabbath of complete rest to you.” The word σάββατα in the LXX compliments the verb “to be” (ἔσται). The word σαββάτων (“of complete rest”) modifies σάββατα. Both nouns clearly refer to an activity, a Sabbath-keeping to be rendered by those addressed in the passage. In Leviticus 23:32b of the LXX a verb is followed by its direct object as follows: σαββατιεῖτε τὰ σάββατα ὑμῶν (sabbatieite ta sabbata hymōn [“you shall keep your sabbath”]). Here a Sabbath for the people of God to keep is pressed upon them, explicitly by verbs and implicitly by nouns. Also, in each case the word “Sabbath” is the same used by Moses in Genesis 2:2, “and He rested on the seventh day” (emphasis added). Pertinent to our discussion as well is the fact that God’s creational rest in the LXX of Exodus 20:11 is referred to with the verb κατέπαυσεν (katepausen), the same word translated “rest” in Hebrews 3 and 4. In the LXX, what for the Creator is “rest” implies a Sabbath day to be kept for creatures. Hebrews 3 and 4 seem to follow this septuagintal pattern (see the discussion on divine rests above and the exposition of Heb. 4:10 below).

Robert P. Martin has an excellent discussion on the word “a Sabbath rest” (σαββατισμὸς [sabbatismos]). In the context of interacting with Andrew T. Lincoln, Martin says:

It is interesting that Lincoln acknowledges that “in each of these places [i.e., the LXX texts cited above] the term denotes the observance or celebration of the Sabbath,” i.e., not a Sabbath rest as a state to be entered into but a Sabbath-keeping as a practice to be observed. This, of course, corresponds to the word’s morphology, for the suffix —μoς indicates anaction and not just a state. This at least suggests that if the writer of Hebrews meant only “a Sabbath rest,” i.e., “a Sabbath state” to be entered into, he would have used the term σάββατον (“Sabbath”) or continued to use κατάπαυσις (“rest”), for he already had established the referent of κατάπαυσις as God’s own Sabbath rest which is to be entered into by faith (cf., 4:1, 3-4, 11). Thus σαββατισμὸς suggests a Sabbath action, i.e., “a Sabbath-keeping,” although the idea of a “a Sabbath state” is not necessarily excluded because of the overarching theme of the larger context.[2]

Throughout the passage thus far, the word translated “rest” is κατάπαυσις (katapausis). This word is also used in Hebrews 4:10-11. The shift from katapausis to sabbatismos at Hebrews 4:9 is deliberate.[3] But why the change? Joseph A. Pipa suggests the following:

The uniqueness of the word suggests a deliberate, theological purpose. He selects or coins sabbatismos because, in addition to referring to spiritual rest, it suggests as well an observance of that rest by a ‘Sabbath-keeping’. Because the promised rest lies ahead for the New Covenant people, they are to strive to enter the future rest. Yet as they do so, they anticipate it by continuing to keep the Sabbath.[4]

Notice that Pipa includes “spiritual rest” in his understanding of the word sabbatismos. This is an important observation, also made by Martin above (i.e., “the idea of ‘a Sabbath state’ is not necessarily excluded because of the overarching theme of the larger context”).

Though many commentators take sabbatismos as either salvation rest in Christ now and in the future or exclusively eschatological rest, its use here in light of the flow of the contextual argument and its LXX usages suggest a different meaning. The LXX use has already been noted. In the context of Hebrews 4:9-10, the divine rests referred to have at least three things in common:  1) a divine rest after a divine work; 2) a rest to be entered in terms of man’s obedience and worship in light of the divine work/rest; and 3) a day of rest as a pledge and token of the divine work/rest and of man’s entrance into it. Each divine rest as given to the people of God (i.e., at creation and Canaan) both had an abiding rest day remaining once the rest was instituted. If the other two divine rests included rest-keeping in the form of a Sabbath day, it is not without warrant to expect future divine rests (assuming they occur) to include the same. I am suggesting Hebrews 4:9-10 indicates just such a rest.

[1] Lincoln, “Sabbath, Rest, and Eschatology in the New Testament,” 213.

[2] Martin, The Christian Sabbath, 251-52.

[3] See Lincoln, “Sabbath, Rest, and Eschatology in the New Testament,” 213, where he admits this.

[4] Pipa, The Lord’s Day, 117.

More snippets from this upcoming book:

Jesus and the Sabbath – Matthew 12:1-14:

Just as the temple yields to Christ and is transformed to fit the redemptive-historical circumstances brought in by his sufferings and glory, so the Sabbath yields to Christ and is transformed to fit the same redemptive-historical circumstances. The inaugurated new covenant has both a temple and a Sabbath. This connects Christ’s teaching on the temple and the Sabbath with subsequent revelation.

Symbols, Types, Vos, and the Sabbath:

It is necessary to distinguish between symbols and types.[1] A symbol portrays a fact or reality that presently exists. A type is prospective. Perhaps Geerhardus Vos’ discussion of the fourth commandment can help at this juncture.[2] In his Biblical Theology the fourth commandment gets much more comment from Vos than the others.[3] One of the reasons is due to its origin and modified applicability throughout redemptive history.